The Landsat program is the longest-running enterprise for acquisition of satellite imagery of Earth. On July 23, 1972 the Earth Resources Technology Satellite was launched. This was eventually renamed to Landsat. The most recent, Landsat 8, was launched on February 11, 2013. The instruments on the Landsat satellites have acquired millions of images. The images, archived in the United States and at Landsat receiving stations around the world, are a unique resource for global change research and applications in agriculture, cartography, geology, forestry, urban and regional planning, surveillance and education, and can be viewed through the USGS ‘EarthExplorer’ website. Landsat 7 data has eight spectral bands with spatial resolutions ranging from 15 to 60 meters; the temporal resolution is 16 days. Landsat images are usually divided into scenes for easy downloading. Each Landsat scene is about 115 miles long and 115 miles wide (or 100 nautical miles long and 100 nautical miles wide, or 185 kilometers long and 185 kilometers wide).
1. Africa Content Environmental Change: Landsat data was heavily used to create Africa Environmental change Atlas Map that includes map of glacier melting, loss of different kind of vegetation and so on.
Research Paper: AFRICA Atlas of Our Changing Environment
2. Algae Monitoring: Landsat data are used to monitor the presensce of algae in lakes.
3. Assessment of Drought: Vegetation map prepared from the Landsat data gives better visualization of greenness percentage in Desert area. If there is the lack of rain and decrease in vegetation which might trigger the drought. Landsat data can help to find those drought area and provide critical information to environmentalist for finding the ways to increase the greenness.
4. Below the Land: Landsat image has been useful for providing evidence of ancient Mega Lake.
Research Paper: Landsat Provides Evidence of Ancient Mega-Lake
5. Better Estimate of Boreal Forest: Combination of Landsat and other imagery data can be helpful to better understand the increament or decrement of boreal forest.
6. Cartographic Design: Landsat data can be combined with DEM (digital elevation model0 to create a meaningful 3d map.
Research Paper: Applicaiton of Landsat Images for Mapping…
7. Change Shoreline: Time series Landsat data helps the marine researcher to observe the change on the sea shore. This helps to create better environment for sea plant and fish.
Research Paper: Shoreline extraction using satellite imagery
8. Chevron Discovery: On the Landsat 7 image, Chevron has been discovered around the Madagascar.
Research Paper: Landsat Data Used in Chevron Discovery
9. Classify Land Capability: Landsat data can be classified into different categories based on it’s capability. Different variables are inputted to create a capability mapping, such as slope, vegetation, land cover, soil type and so on.
10. Classifying Rock Type: Landsat data can be used to classify rocky types to certain extent.
11. Coal Mine Fire: Coal mine fire is major problem in coal industry, Landsat-7 Enhance Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) band 6 thermal data can be used for detection of surface and subsurface coal fires.
12. Coal Mining Activities: Coal mining activities can increase the acidity and decrease PH value in mine water. Landsat data can be used to track the hydrological and limnological development on the mine water.
13. Coastal Erosion: Water always tend to erode the land surface area, Landsat time series data can be used to monitor the erosion area that might help for the better planning.
Research Paper: Landsat Helps Document Alaska Coastal Erosion
14. Coastal Studies: Landsat data provides wide range of reflectance values which can be used to understand the behavior changes of the coastal area.
Research Paper: Coastline change detection using remote sensing
15. Coral Reefs: Finding location and distribution of the coral reefs using Landsat image that might be important for the health of the shallow coastal waters.
Research Paper: Coral Reef Mapping Using Landsat Thematic-Mapper Data
16. Cyclone Aftermath: Landsat data is heavily used to assess the property damaged caused by the natural disaster. Cyclone Nargis that occurred in the Burma and rescue team relied on the Landsat data captured during that period to analyze the impact.
17. Dam Construction: China is using Landsat data to monitor the construction of the three massive dam along the Yangtze River which will be world largest hydroelectric power generator.
Research Paper: Landsat Watches as China Constructs Giant Dam
18. Delineating Unconsolidated Rocks and Soils: Landsat data has been used for this type of delineation.
19. Dessert Blooms: Landsat image data are helpful to locate the dessert blooming and their condition every year.
20. Differentiating Vegetation and Crop Type: Landsat image can be used to identify different types of crops or vegetation on the surface. Each vegeation reflects unique reflectance that is caputred by landsat satellite and these values are used to map it.
21. Diversity and Biomass of Tropical Forests: Landsat data were used to understand the decrease of tropical forest of Puerto Rico. Time series land cover maps was produced from land sat data to understand the decrease in diversity of the plants in the island.
22. Effects of Natural Disaster: Landsat data can be used to perform aftermath effects of the natural Disaster and critical role in responding to it.
Research Paper: Remote Sensing For Natural Disaster Management
23. Electricity Lines Route: Landsat data can be used to find the best route for electricity lines.
24. Examine Health Condition of Forests: Forest is home for different species or animals; Landsat image has been used to find the heath condition of the temperate conifer forest. This type of finding helps researcher to understand the ecosystem of the forest and role of the human activities on degrading the quality of the forest.
25. Examine Soil Condition: Differently soils reflects different reflectance; values are different for top soil or for barren soil. Landsat image has been used to understand the condition of the soil type or transition of the soil from one type to other.
Research Paper: Soil Salinity Mapping Using Multitemporal Landsat Data
26. Examining the Ongoing project: Landsat data from different period can be used to track how the project work is moving ahead.
27. Farming and Land Management: Landsat image is widely used by farmers to analyze the crop or land and find good timing to irrigate or fertilize crops. Remotely captured data will be handy to farmers to perform right type of calculation for the better production of the crop.
28. Fighting Poverty and Hunger: Organization like USAID used Landsat data to manage the poverty and hunger in the different counties.
Research Paper: U.S. Uses Landsat Satellite Data To Fight Hunger, Poverty
29. Finding Petroleum Resources: Landsat data has been used by different oil and gas company to do preliminary survey for location of the proleum resources.
Research Paper: Finding Oil and Gas from Space
30. Fire and Water Relationship: Water catchment area and forest are complimentary to each other, and most of drinking and irrigation water comes from this area by forest. If fire happen on this forest area which will cut off the supply of water. Landsat data has played an important role to manage the fire and water resources effectively.
31. Flood Plains: Landsat data are used to map the flood plains and also its vegetation health.
Research Paper: Floods, floodplains, delta plains — A satellite imaging approach
32. Foreclosure House Vegetation: Properties are foreclosed every year around the world which leaves opportunity for the vegetation to grow rapidly. Municipality likes to monitor those property’s vegetation which might be harmful to the surrounding environment. In response to this scientists have used Landsat data to monitor the vegetation growth.
33. Forest Damage in Croatia: Landsat 8 OLI images was used to perform the assessment of forest damage in the Croatia.
34. Forest Inventory: Layers of different Landsat image captured in different period time and GIS layers can be used to create the inventory of the forest range vegetation.
35. Forest Trends: Landsat data can be used to see the forest trend growing or forest deforestation. Different government bodies used Landsat data to make decision on how human settlements is affecting the forest area.
36. Geomorphic Maps: Landsat data has been used to study the structural geology and geomorphology of the lands surface.
37. Glacier Monitoring: Most of the glacier around the world are experiencing retreat, thinning or stagnation esp. at lower elevations. Researcher have used Landsat data to find out the glacier retreat experiences.
38. Glacier: Glacial holds ton of cubic water and understanding its increment and decrement is important for the environment phenomenon. Landsat data helps to understand ice sheet movement in the Antarctica or the Northern part of any continent which are very remote and less accessible .
Research Paper: Measuring changes and extent of glacial features
39. Groundwater Discharges: Researcher uses Landsat data’s thermal band along with the panchromatic and near-infrared spectral band to analyze the groundwater discharges.
Research Paper: Locating Ground-Water Discharge Areas In…
40. Health Assessment of Coral Reef: Landsat data can was used to assess the health condition of the coral reef.
41. Horticulture: Horticulture is becoming worldwide popular and to understand it’s behavior Landsat data plays an vital role. Analysis of Landsat data can confirm; right month to irrigate, stress level of the plant and so on.
42. Impact Craters: NASA used Landsat data to find out the impact of the craters.
Research Paper: Finding Impact Craters with Landsat
43. Insect Outbreaks: Landsat data can capture the insect outbreaks from space and it can be used to control.
Research Paper: Landsat-based analysis of insect outbreaks in southern Siberia
44. Irrigable Fields: Landsat data has been used to trace the area of irrigable; ETM + image was used to map land use and irrigated croplands.
45. Land Discovery: Features that surveyor were unaware of it, they were able to track it down by observing features on the Landsat image. Landsat Island was discovered by it and was named after it.
Research Paper: Landsat Island
46. Land Use Classification: Landsat data has been heavily used to classify the land, there are numerous algorithm that can classify Landsat data.
47. Land Water Boundaries: Landsat data has been heavily used to convert surface feautres into land cover maps. Analyst uses different algorithm such as NDVI to differentiate surface features including water body.
Research Paper: Water Body Detection and Delineation with Landsat TM Data
48. Landslide Monitoring: Landsat data have provided ease to environmentalist to provide information about soils, land-cover and structural geology, these all are the factors affecting landslide occurrence.
49. Large Area Forest Canopy: Large area estimation of forest cover or canopy cover is much interested for forest or ecological activities. Landsat image is used to estimate the area of canopy cover.
50. Location of Dump sites: Landsat spectral features can be used to find the space for the dump site or find unknown dump sites.
51. Management of Insect Infestations: Landsat data can be used to manage the infected forest area by the insect. Temporal sequence of Landsat data is used to calculate the infected area.
52. Management of Water: Landsat imagery has number of uses and one of them will be benefit of water management. Especially in USA western part is worried of decreasing water resources, government agencies is using Landsat data to determine past and present water use and evapotranspiration (ET) which helps for water.
53. Managing Crop Insurance: Government has program of crop insurance to help farmer if they are hit hard by hail or other natural disaster. But there are few farmer who can misuse the government insurance policy, in such case Landsat data is used to understand the farmland for particular time period.
54. Mapping Ancient features: Archaeologist are using Landsat data to explore the ancient places.
55. Mapping Antarctica: More than 1100 Landsat 7 images in 2007 was used to create high resolution, true color map.
Research Paper: Guided Tour of LIMA Flyover
56. Mapping Fire Prevention: Past Landsat data is used by the government agencies to analyze the area where there is possibility of fire.
57. Mapping Geologic Landforms: Landsat data has been used to map the Geologic Landforms.
58. Mapping Geology Features: Landsat data has been used to map the geology features of the earth surface.
Research Paper: Geological applications of LANDSAT thematic mapper imagery…
59. Mapping Infected Areas: Disease outbreaks are some way related with the vegetation habitat. If vegetation habitat are growing or moving from one part to another, disease can be wide spread. Landsat data acquired during particular period can be used by researcher to find out the vegetation habitat and solution to control it.
60. Mapping Mangroves: Mangroves forest are decreasing mainly in the tsunami impacted countries mainly due to Agricultural expansion. Researchers have used Landsat data to calculate the remaining area of the mangrove forests.
Research Paper: Remote Sensing Application fro Mangrove Mapping in…
61. Mapping Potholes: Potholes are small depression wetlands which are glacially-formed mainly found in Central North America. Researcher have used Landsat data to map the status of potholes and their impact on the climate change.
62. Mapping Sugarcane Caribbean Island: New type of vegetation map was created using the Landsat data to understand the forest on these islands.
63. Measurement of Carbon Contain: After industrial revolution tons of carbon dioxide (Co2) is added to the atmosphere which is the main cause of the global warming. Another cause of global warming is deforestation that is clearing of the vegetation which results increase of Co2. So scientist has used Landsat data from 30 years back till today to assess the change in the vegetation so far.
Research Paper: Using Landsat TM data to estimate carbon release from burned
64. Measurement of Crop or Forest Area: Captured Landsat image can be used to measure the area of the forest or the crop land.
Research Paper: Forest Area Estimation Using Optical Remote…
65. Monitoring Bison: Landsat data can be used to track the habitat of the Bison and Elk.
Research Paper: Modeling Elk and Bison Carrying Capacity for Great Sand
66. Monitoring Clearcutting: For logging business clear cutting is practiced often which leads to degradation of the rain forest that means increase in global warming. Researcher have used Landsat data to track the area of clear cutting.
Research Paper: Monitoring large areas for forest change using Landsat
67. Monitoring Coffee Plantation: Multi Temporal Landsat 8 NDVI mapping was used to find out the inconsistency growth of the Arabica coffee.
68. Monitoring Coral Reef: Centuries back Coral reef were track by using plane or ship, people used to travel throughout the sea and track the location of the coral reef. Now technology has changed and things can be tracked and recorded using satellite image. RGB band Landsat image has played an important role on tracking down the coral reef.
Research Paper: Coral Reef Mapping Using Landsat Thematic-Mapper Data
69. Monitoring Flooding: Past Landsat image can help to understand the flooded area and damage it has done to the surrounding area.
Research Paper: Landsat and Water—Case Studies of the Uses and…
70. Monitoring Grass and Forest Fires: Grass and Forest fires are big problem for any government bodies, managing them is cumbersome task. One main thing to watch out is the amount of the dry biomass on the ground which is the fuel for the wild fires. Reflectance values from the Landsat image can provide this information.
71. Monitoring Ice Sheet: Remote access like Antarctic would be only possible through Landsat data (satellite) and it makes lot easier to monitor the Ice sheet.
Research Paper: Monitoring Ice Sheet Activity in Antarctica
72. Monitoring Lake Eutrophication: Eutrophication is the depletion of oxygen in a water body, which kills aquatic animals (Wiki). Bloom is one example which might be eating up too much oxygen from the water turns out to be less for aquatic animals. Landsat data can be used to create vegetation mapping and keep track of its area.
73. Monitoring Lakes: As spring starts snow melts, large lake receive warm spring run-off carrying pollutants which are not good for the phytoplankton plants and fish that feed on them. As warm water stays on the shoreline, Landsat data helps to understand the land use pattern on the shoreline.
Research Paper: Monitoring lake inventories and health
74. Monitoring Mine Waste: Mine waste is pollution to land, water and environment. Keeping control of mine waste is challenge for the environmentalist. Landsat data helps to identify, delineate and monitor the mine pollution sources and affected areas.
Research Paper: Spaceborne Mine Waste Mineralogy Monitoring in South……
75. Monitoring Oil Spills: Oil Spill happens frequently, might be in sea water or in land. Tracking them and controlling the impact of the oil spill, time lapsed Landsat helps to monitor it.
Research Paper: Oil Spill Remote Sensing
76. Monitoring Red Tides: Red tide is a discoloration of seawater caused by bloom of toxic red dinoflagellates. Landsat ETM+ data is used to observe the concentration of red tide.
77. Monitoring Sea Ice: Sea ice covers uses space in northern and southern hemisphere, and Landsat image have helped scientists to understand the flow, direction and change in area of it.
Research Paper: Sea Ice Monitoring by Remote Sensing
78. Monitoring Tillage: Landsat-5 data was used to monitor the tillage.
Research Paper: Assessment of Tillage Practices Using Landsat-TM 5 in Nebraska.
79. Monitoring Volcanic Ash: Volcanic ash consists of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic (wiki). Landsat data is heavily used to create volcanic plume elevation model.
Research Paper: Creating a Volcanic Plume Elevation Model
80. Monitoring Water Pollution: Lakes water grow different type of vegetation and species that depends upon oxygen; lacking of it might be due to Hazardous Algae Blooms (HAB). Landsat data can be used to track these alagae and find a way to solve the problem.
81. Observing Deforestation: Landsat images from different year can be used to monitor the growth or loss of the forest. Typical example will be the deforestation of the Amazon forest, on an average 6200 square miles of forest was lost each year in the period of 1970s to mid-1980s.
82. Observing Road: Information of the land surface from the landsat data, road engineer can use this information to build the road network.
Research Paper: Road Detection From High And Low Resolution Satellite Images
83. Online Map: Landsat data has been used in different platform such as Google Earth as a base map.
Research Paper: Landsat Data Base Map for Google Earth
84. Ponds Area: Scientist have done research on the Alaska Lakes from year 1950 to 2002 with the help of Landsat data to show reduction in the number and size of the ponds.
Research Paper: Landsat Shows Shrinking Ponds in Alaska
85. Quantifying Fire Severity: Landsat data can be used to calculate the area affected by the fire.
Research Paper: Using Landsat data to assess fire and burn severity…
86. Rain Forest: Government bodies in South America are using Landsat to make decision on preserving rain forest.
Research Paper: Landsat Helps Rain Forest Protection Work in Peru
87. Rainfall Patterns: Scientists are now relying on Landsat data to demonstrate the link between rain and Urban Growth.
88. Rapid Mapping Forest Loss by Hurricane: Landsat data has been used rapidly to map the damaged forest area by Hurricane.
Research Paper: Rapid Mapping of Hurricane Damage to Forests
89. Reefs, Shoals and Shallow Areas in Sea: False-color infrared composite image of reefs, shoals and shallow areas indicates the strength of the vegetation.
Research Paper: Coral Reef Mapping Using Landsat Thematic-Mapper Data
90. Regional Planning: Analysis of Landsat data helps to perform better planning. Visualization of satellite data may trigger idea to control the urban sprawl.
91. Researching Cancer: Cancer is highly related to crop that we rely on, scientist are trying to find the way to track the crop history to perform research on relationship between chemical and water used to grow crops. Vegetation map created from Landsat data can provide so much information to Scientist.
Research Paper: Using Landsat Satellite Imagery in Cancer Research
92. Researching Weather and Climate Change: Land Use map created from past few decades using Landsat data highlighted the change in the summer seasonal rainfall and climate change.
Research Paper: Landsat’s Critical Role in Understanding Climate Change
93. Rice Production: Combination of different Satellite images, including Landsat can be used to monitor the rice production in Burma.
94. Schedule Forest Monitor: North American Carbon Program uses Landsat data to keep monitoring the forest disturbance in the North America.
Research Paper: Forest Disturbance and the North American Carbon Flu
95. Sea Grass Mapping: Landsat data is used to monitor and calculate the sea grass area.
96. Sea Surface Salinity: Multivariable linear algorithm was used on the reflectance values from Landsat 8 OLI data to calculate the sea surface salinity (SSS).
97. Sea Surface Temperature: Landsat infrared data can be used to measure the temperature of the sea.
98. Snow Melt Runoff: Landsat data are good source for calculating snow melt runoff using the remote sensing, GIS and simulation modelling techniques.
99. Socioeconomic Impacts: Land use pattern map can be created from the Landsat data. This map can be used to understand the socioeconomic impact on the land use of the area.
100. Soil Carbon Flux: Researchers are relying on satellite image product to track the amount of the carbon present on the soil surface which help government bodies to the land management.
Research Paper: Landsat Helps Map Soil Carbon Flux
101. Soil Salinity: Salt contain in the soil is huge threat for the agriculture business, researcher have used Landsat data to calculate the content of salt in soil.
102. Storm Impact on Sandy Beaches: Shoreline position obtained from the Landsat images can be analyzed to track the storm impact and recovery processes on sandy beaches.
103. Surface Circulation and Upwelling Patterns: Landsat 7 data has been used to observe the Surface Circulation and Upwelling Patterns.
104. Surface Thermal: Landsat data can be used to measure the temperature of the surface which can be very helpful to understand the rising temperature on the earth surface.
Research Paper: Calculating surface temperature using Landsat thermal imagery
105. Transportation Network: Landsat data is used to plan the transportation network. Landsat data can provide enough information about the capability.
106. Trend of Sediment: Landsat data can be used to trace the type and quality of sediment on the bank of the river which helps to understand what type of land use practices were performed and variation on the rain fall.
107. Tropical Rainfall: Growth of Tropical forest heavily depend on the amount of the rain fall each year, vegetation strength can be calculated using the Landsat data which is directly dependent on the rainfall.
108. Urban Growth: Observing Landsat data over time gives a good idea about the growth of the urban area.
Research Paper: Landsat’s Critical Role in Urban Planning
109. Urban Heat Islands: The parking lot that is built by Asphalt is always hotter than the surrounding grassy pathway because asphalt absorb more heat and is the main cause of the increase in temperature of the city.
110. Vegetation of Bay area: Landsat data has been heavenly used for planning and restoration of vegetation of different world bay area.
111. Vegetation Water Content (VWC): Information about the vegetation water content is vital in the agriculture, forestry or hydrology field. Researcher use Landsat thermal band to calculate the vegetation water content in the plant leaves or the soil moisture.
112. Volcanic Flow Activity: Landsat data are captured every 18 days and can be used to track the volcanic flow activities around the world.
113. Volcanic Surface deposits: Scientist are relying on the time series of Landsat data to explore the amount of Lava being added to the surface.
Research Paper: Mapping volcanic surface deposits
114. Water Boundaries and Area: Landsat data has been heavily used to trace water boundaries, and also same time to calculate the area of it.
Research Paper: Water Body Detection and Delineation with Landsat TM Data
115. Watersheds Mapping: Landsat data area always used to calculate the watersheds area.
116. Wetland Inundation Dynamics: Wetland are important factor for the ecosystem services, this is mainly controlled by the inundation fluctuation and soil saturation. Inundation is mainly controlled by the precipitation and evapotranspiration. LIDAR and time series Landsat data can be used to monitor those inundated areas.
117. Wetland Rebuilding: Every year we are losing so many wetlands from the world, Landsat data from present and past helps to find out the area that have changed and triggers the importance of restoring or bring back to previous stage.
118. Wetlands: Landsat data can be downloaded of few decades back, so it can be used to track the number and area of the wetlands.
119. Wheat Production Estimate: Landsat data plays a major role on balancing the price of the wheat globally. Landsat data can be helpful how much wheat will be produce on one corner of the world so opposite corner does not plant a lot to avoid wheat glut.
Research Paper: Landsat – Protecting the Price of Bread
120. Wildlife Habitat: Landsat image can be used to track the changes in the forest vegetation or its area; whose outcome can be helpful to understand change in the wildlife habitat. Also it can be helpful to management of the wildlife habitat.
Research Paper: Classifying Wildlife Habitat With Pan-Sharpened Landsat 7